This is a large document. We would like to give you printedpage numbers but we don't know how you will paginate it (what size paper, margins etc). So there is no point in page numbers on the Table of Contents either.
We think the best way to refer to Bedrock is online at www.businessbedrock.org. You get the latest version, you access only the bits you want, and you can use the online indexes and search.
The next best way is to keep this document as html online, so you can search it using your browser.
If you really want hardcopy printed, you can download this whole document from the website. You may have done that already. As mentioned, this is a large document. Last time we checked (version 0.4) it was 630 pages long on our printer!! If you just want a more manageable piece of it, you can go to any online webpage and click the "Copy or print" link to get only that page and its child pages. Remember that any extract is still bound by the license terms of the document it comes from.
Then the best way to print is to save it to your PC (File>>Save As...), then open it with your favourite text editor (such as MSWord or Open Office), delete this page, and then use that tool to generate a Table of Contents and handle the printing.
Or you can just print the whole downloaded document from your browser. We put page throws in for you at the right places. Put lots of paper in the printer.
Core Practice (CoPr) and Bedrock (CoPr for Small Business) originate from the Institute of Core Practice
Copyright (c) 2006 TWO HILLS LIMITED. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the FrontCover Texts being "Core Practice (CoPr) and Bedrock (CoPr for Small Business) originate from the Institute of Core Practice", and with the BackCover Text being "The concept of Core Practice (CoPr) and the definition of Bedrock (CoPr for Small Business) originate from the Institute of Core Practice. Please visit www.businessbedrock.org to get the latest, and to contribute if you can". A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
Authors: Rob England, Two Hills Ltd and many contributors listed at www.corepractice.org/contributors
Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank: Craig Pattison for making it possible Vee England for her patience and care Richard Stallman
Bedrock, CoPr, RADIX Framework and the Koru Tick are trademarks of Two Hills Ltd, www.twohills.co.nz
This is version 0.6 of Bedrock (Core Practice for Small Business).
There is still little "completed' content (it is never really completed as we debate and refine and evolve it), but there are examples in Define a Catalog of Services, and Governor.
If material is published in an open license and it is good, then we will copy and reference it, as in Financial Plan.
Still to come (and volunteers welcomed):
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Changes in version 0.6:
Changes in version 0.5:
Changes in version 0.4
Please note that this is not a stable version: the information is subject to constant update until we get to a clean version 1.0
By all means download it , but keep coming back for the latest version when you are about to use it.
You can see all the gaps where there is only "placeholder" material. Please donate material or talk to people you know who can.
Report any problems or suggestions using the instructions here: http://www.businessbedrock.org/#64
Bedrock is all the basic core practices to run a small business, documented in one place.
Simple: a checklist of the minimum things every business needs to do, and how to do them with the least fuss: the copper answer not the gold one.
Free: contributed by the public, and returned to the public for free. It is distributed online at this website, or you can download it as a book. Really. No strings, no spam, no catch.
Good: content is reviewed and debated by you, the user community, before it is quality assured and published by a committee of the Institute of Core Practice.
Supportive: there is a helpful community of other users, support people, mentors, and professionals behind it.
Dip into it to find out how to do something.
Compare what you do against the discussed and agreed method.
Tick off your business against the checklists to see what you are not doing.
Use it to fill those gaps.
View it online. Download a copy. Share it. Give it away.
Put your own logo on it, change it, make money off it  we don't care.
Bedrock helps you spend where you need to and not where you don't. It should also increase competitiveness by focusing spend and effort in the right places. It will reduce the risk of losing all you have worked to build.
Bedrock is still under development (see Status of Bedrock). It tells you "what" but not a lot of "how" yet. If you can help with content, please volunteeer.
If you are in a hurry, Bedrock is at http://www.businessbedrock.org/get. You can read or download or print all the Bedrock Practices and guidance on how to use them without registering or paying anything, so long as you follow the terms of the license, because Bedrock is free documentation.
It comes from you, the community, who review and comment on what is there, and propose new content, and form the Institute that manages and approves the content.
Bedrock is based on Core Practice (CoPr, pronounced “copper”). CoPr is a pragmatic approach to writing down the basic minimum things to do to run a business. (It is about time someone did). The version of CoPr for Small Business is called Bedrock. Bedrock is a version of CoPr specifically for those who don't have great resources to apply. Bedrock and Core Practice are managed by the Institute of Core Practice (IoCP). Why are we doing CoPr? Because corepractice.org seeks to change the world. For more about CoPr see http://www.corepractice.org.
Bedrock is made to be simple and accessible. The objective is to reduce costs, increase efficiency, support growth and hopefully give a competitive edge. And not to lose the business you have built. It is useful where much other advice isn’t, because it
Bedrock takes the body of knowledge that exists in the corporate world and condenses it into something coherent and useful for SMEs. The material includes advice on what to consider, how to think about it, what to do about it, and where to go if more information is required. The first release covers Governance (managing), Sales, the Service Management approach, People, Operations, Computing, and Finance.
We believe small businesses want something that works, in preference over theoretical correctness or exquisite detail. We create content that is acceptable, achievable and affordable. It is focused on results: making the processes in the organisation cheaper, more efficient and ready for change.
The target audience is small businesses that
Bedrock is basically a list of good practices to introduce and perform. We know managers of SMEs are always timepoor, so the practices are presented in a brief format, with practical advice and realistic expectations of what can be achieved.
The practices require a typical minimum of about an hour of effort, up to any maximum you think is worthwhile. Some require quite a bit of effort. Others just make sure that you have thought about the implications of something and are happy to do nothing about it. A few recommend you seek expert assistance from outside consultants (“don’t try this at home”).
To keep it simple, we are trying to make each practice independent of the others. This is not always possible, as the whole point of Service Management is to integrate processes together working towards the same goals – those of the organisation.
Placeholder for an in introductory text to the SB Group: it's aims, workings etc
Bedrock is made up of the following Disciplines (or sets of related Processes):
Disciplines can be further broken down into Domains if desired. For convenience, those that are not are given one Domain of the same name. The Processes of the model are placed within the Domains, i.e. a Process exists in only one Domain within one Discipline. Each Process is made up of Practices. A Practice exists within only one Process (or if it is used in multiple places it is called a Technique and referred to when necessary). The model defines a number of Roles that people will perform. Each Process is owned by a Role, and each Practice is performed by a Role (not necessarily the same one that owns the related Process).
The Bedrock process map looks like this:
Like any undertaking, Bedrock will be most useful if you do some planning first. Take a look at these questions (see below) and ponder what you want from Bedrock.
Bedrock is not anywhere near complete yet (see status of Bedrock). There is a lot of content to be added, an Institute to be created, and a community to grow. So don't be basing your business on Bedrock just yet. But please do use it, and let us know if it was useful and how you would like to see it change as it grows.
If you want some advice or discussion please feel free to ask in the forums. There are organisations that will provide professional help with Bedrock too.
Consider which of the following describes your motivation for being here. If you are not sure what you are looking for, talk it over with people, including those in our forums.
Small businesses "change gear" when:
It is time to introduce some Practices where there aren't any, and review the ones that are there and improve them if necessary.
Look at the names of the Maturity Levels. if you have come through a storm and you want to get things in control, you need to at least have the Level 1:Controlling Practices in place. If you want a nice tidy busines that you can see and measure then the Level 2:Managing Practices are required. if you want to move up a gear, run a tighter ship, lift your game, squeeze some efficiencies... all those clichés ... then look at the Level 3:Improving Practices. But you can't run before you walk. To get to Level 2 or 3 you really need to get the lower level Practices in place first. Some business methodologies are quite rigid that you shouldn't move on until all Practices in a level are in place. Remember the CoPr approach is whatever works, makes sense and is achievable, so you may end up working on Practices from a couple of levels at the one time. But in general they build on each other.
You are free to give them a copy of CoPr, so long as you follow the rules of the license (handing them an unchanged copy of CoPr is definitely within the terms of the license).
You will want to learn as much as you can about CoPr so you can give them some good advice on how to approach using it.
You may like to get trained and/or certified by the IoCP to give your clients assurance about using your advice.
Another way to gain experience and credibility is to do volunteer work with the IoCP.
And of course contributing some of the content does your reputation no harm either.
You need to get a bare minimum set of practices in place as quick as you can to ensure the initial functioning of the business and get you through that all important first year.
Start with Maturity Level 0:Beginning practices. Try to get all the Level 0 practices in place, then start on Level 1:Controlled practices. Within those practices start with Optimising Model: Plan practices.
You can print these off one by one. Another approach is to just print off the list, then get the whole of CoPr and just use the bits from the list. Or as a citizen of the 21st Century, you may prefer to just access them online as you need them: that way you will always get the most uptodate version and save some paper in the process.
Answer: Only (1) what you can afford and (2) what benefits your business.
You only have so much time and money to devote to planning and managing the business. We think all these Practices are essential but that doesn't mean you will ever get to all of them. Every small business is winging it in some area (so are many much larger businesses). Hopefully by this point you have a list of Practices you ought to be looking at. With luck we have even given you some guidance on where to start and/or what order to do them in.
Doing it "by the book", at this stage you really should do as assessment of how much Bedrock you are doing already. Consultants talk about working out the "asis" state, then the desired "tobe" state, then doing a "gap analysis" of what needs to be done to get from here to there. It is sensible planning. If you can afford it, do it. On the other hand, if you are a startup you already know how much you do: none of it. For others, you may well find that as you work through each practice it is pretty obvious whether you do it or not.
A key point to make here is that for the majority of small businesses how much you should be doing, or where you want to get to is academic. You won't have enough time and/or money to do it all. So why not get on with it and get as much done as you can? This is an appalling approach for some purists, but they don't have 14 orders to fill by Christmas.
So to summarise: yes plan as much as you feel you need to and can afford to, but since Bedrock is Core Practice (a.k.a. Copr), which is by definition the minimum you ought to be doing, just get on and do as much of it as you can get through.
We don't often recommend you get paid consulting but this is one of those points where it could be money well spent to do one particular bit of planning: talk to an adviser about where to start and what order to attack the Practices in and how much effort you can afford to put into it. You may be able to get some of that advice for free on our Forums or from one of our Mentors if you are willing to do plenty of selfhelp too. Assuming that you won't get it all done, best to start where it will most benefit your business.
In general do all the Maturity Level 0:Beginning Practices first, then Level 1:Controlling and so on. Within each Maturity, you might do in them in the Optimising Model order: Plan, Do, Check, Act. And there are a few where one depends on another being done first, mostly where a tool or process needs to be put in place before you can do something else that uses it. But we try to keep Practices as independent as we can. When you are implementing Bedrock any order is better than not doing them at all so do what works.
Only you know how much you are able to and want to spend on this, but we have started from an assumption that you will allocate one or more hours a week to this, and that you will delegate some of the rioles to others in your business (if there are others in your bsuiness) and that they will also spend one or more hours a week. Each Bedrock Practice is designed so you can get something done in an hour, where possible. So a bare minimum is for each person with a Bedrock role to do one Practice a week. Preferably you will be able to do more than that.
Core Practice is defined as the minimum you need to do, so at least think about every single Practice. If you choose not to do it, learn enough so that is an informed choice and make a note for yourself as to why you made that decision  things may change in a year or two to make you rethink it.
When you run out of resources, stop. When more Practices are not going to return a sufficient benefit to your business, stop. (We like to think they are so fundamental that they will all give a good return but there will be situations where this isn't true. Don't break the business chasing some externallydefined ideal: that is one of the reasons for Bedrock in the first place to stop that kind of thing).
Bedrock is based on Core Practice. Take another look at the definition of Core Practice:
Core Practice: the strategic decision to minimise cost in a discipline of the enterprise by implementing practices sufficient to (a) meet obligations and (b) to make processes work to a standard sufficient that risk (to the organisation and to people in its care) is reduced to some acceptable level.
Core Practice is just enough to make the Processes work and not put anyone (or the business) at unacceptable risk. We think that is a sensible and intelligent level for a business to aim for in noncritical areas of the business. We think there is too much emphasis on aiming for best practice in all areas: it is wasteful, distracting and a drag on the business.
But there will be parts of your business where it is strategically sensible, or essential, for you to aim for best practice. If you read that definition of Core Practice you will see there are some types of business that need to aim for best practice in just about all areas.
So Bedrock is just the beginning. it says you have the business in control, you are doing what you need to be doing, and you are improving the areas that need to be continually improving. This gives you a foundation on which to build. Now you should look at your business and evaluate which processes need to operate to a more advanced standard.
Do you compete on quality? Then your quality control in particular and operations in general had better be more sophisticated. Do you deal in people's lives and welfare? Then you owe them the best you can be. Are you subject to critical scrutiny by the public or regulators? Then you want to point to exemplary systems. Do you already have processes more advanced than Bedrock but you feel they are not as good as they should be?
In all these cases, you need to move on from here and go research what is regarded as best practice. We have provided references for best practice in many places throughout Bedrock. Here are some of them: 0.11.17, 0.11.25, 0.11.36
Bedrock shows you how to prepare a business case. Do one for any best practice proposal and ensure there will be a return that justifies the investment.
If you can afford the investment of time, meauring how much of Bedrock you use (refered to here as "assessing the maturity levels in your organisation") is a good place to start, so you know where you are before you start thinking about where you want to be.
We are looking for someone to contribute an assessment questionairre or methodology for Core Practice, either specific to Small Business or more general. Check back later to see if this has happened yet.
Third parties are also encouraged to offer a commercial assessment service or product. These can be certified by the IoCP.
In the interim here is some general guidance on assessing your organisations maturity.
There are two ways to slice it: a continuous or a staged approach. Continuous means we put practices in place based on expediency (what is easy right now), timing (some take longer to put in place, some have to wait on something else first) and priorities (based on what matters and what is hurting). Staged means that we get all (or almost all) the practices in place at one maturity level before we start working on the next one.
We think the continuous model makes more sense for Small Business in general. Within any one process, the practices should mostly be done in a staged way: quite often the level 2 practices don't work or make much sense until the level 1 practices are in place. But different processes and dsiciplines can be at different average maturity levels depending on the needs of the business.
For a continuous approach use the Process Maturity Checklist.
Some people want to approach it in a staged way. You can get everyone fired up for a project to get to a certain level, so it gives a target to be achieved and something to be celebrated when you get there. Or even if taking a continuous approach, sometimes it is good to assess maturity across the whole business just to get that overall picture. So for a staged assessment there are four Staged Checklists, one for each of the maturity levels of processes.
What about once you have just about all the practices running at all maturity levels? Great. If your business still needs more, it is time to leave Bedrock behind and investigate the Best Practice references you will find at the end of many of the Practices: go for gold.
if you are viewing this online, please don't tick the checkboxes on the screen: they don't get saved or do anything (yet). These checklists are intended to be printed out and filled in the oldfashioned way. when finished, file the checklist away and refer back to it next time you review this, say in a year, so you can see how much progress you have made.
Use the Process Maturity Checklist. For each process that you care about, mark off the practices you think you are doing OK. If a process is doing threequarters of the practices at a level, then you can say that process is achieving that level. Check that most of the practices at lower levels are marked off before doing too many practices at the higher levels: don't let it get "top heavy".
Start with Staged Checklist, Level 0:Beginning. Read the description of each practice. Then mark off the practices you think you are doing OK. Then move on to Staged Checklist, Level 1:Controlled and do the same, and so on. Stop when you get to a level where you don't seem to be doing many of the processes. If you are doing threequarters of the practices at a level, then you can say you are achieving that level (of course, all of them would be better).
We chose names that are not judgemental. No level is bad. it is what it is. What matters is whether you are meeting your business needs. if not, then it may be worthwhile to lift the maturity level in the area that is letting you down.
Incomplete process, controls, ownerships etc.
Stop the rot, stabilise, prevent further damage, and reduce immediate risks.
Get control, get ownership. Put processes in place, assign roles.
Emergency practices are in place. Process is performed adequately, has an owner.
Get measurement, get accountability.
Process is repeatable and documented. Process is measured and reported.
Integrate processes, install feedback loops, implement process improvement program.
Process integrates with other processes. Reviews are performed. A continuous improvement program operates.
If you are viewing this online, please don't tick the checkboxes on the screen: they don't get saved or do anything (yet). These checklists are intended to be printed out and filled in the oldfashioned way. when finished, file the checklist away and refer back to it next time you review this, say in a year, so you can see how much progress you have made.
group contains 213 practices.If you are viewing this online, please don't tick the checkboxes on the screen: they don't get saved or do anything (yet). These checklists are intended to be printed out and filled in the oldfashioned way. when finished, file the checklist away and refer back to it next time you review this, say in a year, so you can see how much progress you have made.
group contains 12 practices at maturity level 0:beginning.Governance  Business planning  Determine business strategy  
Governance  Business planning  Determine internet strategy  
Governance  Business planning  Create a Business Plan  
Governance  Business continuity  Make a daily backup of production data  
Governance  Change  All changes to hardware or software must be notified  
Governance  CoPr  have a CoPr owner  
Governance  CoPr  Download CoPr  
Governance  CoPr  Create a CoPr plan  
Governance  CoPr  Determine your review interval for each Discipline  
Service  Service Levels  Have a Service Manager  
Computing  Security  Install a software firewall and antivirus on all PCs  
Computing  Security  Have a security owner 
If you are viewing this online, please don't tick the checkboxes on the screen: they don't get saved or do anything (yet). These checklists are intended to be printed out and filled in the oldfashioned way. when finished, file the checklist away and refer back to it next time you review this, say in a year, so you can see how much progress you have made.
group contains 41 practices at maturity level 1:controlled.If you are viewing this online, please don't tick the checkboxes on the screen: they don't get saved or do anything (yet). These checklists are intended to be printed out and filled in the oldfashioned way. when finished, file the checklist away and refer back to it next time you review this, say in a year, so you can see how much progress you have made.
group contains 88 practices at maturity level 2:managed.If you are viewing this online, please don't tick the checkboxes on the screen: they don't get saved or do anything (yet). These checklists are intended to be printed out and filled in the oldfashioned way. when finished, file the checklist away and refer back to it next time you review this, say in a year, so you can see how much progress you have made.
group contains 72 practices at maturity level 3:optimising.Here you find advise on how to make use of Bedrock: implementing it and the ongoing use of it.
There are many resources to help you online.
At the Bedrock website http://www.businessbedrock.org:
Bedrock is one example of Core Practice or CoPr (Bedrock is CoPr for Small Business). Core Practice and Bedrock are created and maintained and promoted by the Institute of Core Practice (IoCP). Their website http://www.corepractice.org has more interesting resources online:
You are not alone. If you want some advice, or to talk something over, or you are just curious, there are resources on the website http://www.businessbedrock.org for you:
If you have derived value from Bedrock, you might like to give back. Bedrock is free because it is contributed by you, the public. Core Practice, and Bedrock (CoPr specifically for Small Business), are distributed by their steward organisation, the Institute of Core Practice (IoCP). IoCP is a volunteer community organisation.
You can help out in many ways:
Note: many contributors make no secret of the fact that we hope to make a living by selling additional services and products related to Core Practice. The IoCP constitution requires it to not conduct commercial activities and to actively promote a third party commercial sector around CoPr. None of this impacts the independence of the IoCP nor its aims to make this knowledge freely available to those who have little use for fancier methodologies and cannot afford them. Nor does it interfere with our own volunteer efforts to advance the IoCP and make free Core Practice a reality.
Practices are organised by Processes (sometimes within Domains) within Disciplines.
The steering, audit and oversight of the organisation.
This discipline is deliberately not called "management": there is management in all processes. These days it seems like everyone is called a manager, debasing the term.
Either a formal Board of Directors for an incorporated company, or informal board of advisors for other forms of organisation
if we hadn't already used the term, this would be called "Governance"
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Debate is invited as to whether Balanced Scorecard is the most appropriate methodology for assessing the small business against the business plan, having regard to the following points:
Andersen et al think it is [ref 0.11.11]. Others don't [reference required].
Other alternatives include
The process of obtaining necessary advice, competitive intelligence and solutions (answers) from outside the organisation.
Sources will include
Suppliers, vendors, service providers, professionals, consultants: all the people and organisations we have business relationships with, other than customers.
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This process will be replaced by a complete Project Management discipline.
Volunteers are sought to write all or part of the Project Management discipline. Contact content@corepractice.org
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the planning and control of money and of the flow of money
"Small businesses often face a variety of problems related to their size. A frequent cause of bankruptcy is undercapitalization. This is often a result of poor planning rather than economic conditions  it is common rule of thumb that the entrepreneur should have access to a sum of money at least equal to the projected revenue for the first year of business in addition to his anticipated expenses. For example, if the prospective owner thinks that he will generate $100,000 in revenues in the first year with $150,000 in startup expenses, then he should have no less than $250,000 available. Failure to provide this level of funding for the company could leave the owner liable for all of the company's debt should he end up in bankruptcy court, under the theory of undercapitalization. In addition to insuring that the business has enough capital, the small business owner must also be mindful of gross margin (sales minus variable costs). To break even, the business must be able to reach a level of sales where the gross margin exceeds fixed costs. When they first start out, many small business owners underprice their products to a point where even at their maximum capacity, it would be impossible to break even. The good news is that cost controls or a price increase can often resolve this problem. In the United States, some of the largest concerns of small business owners are insurance costs (such as liability and health), rising energy costs and taxes. In the United Kingdom and Australia, small business owners tend to be more concerned with excessive governmental red tape...
Small businesses use several sources available for startup capital:
Some small businesses are further financed through credit card debt  usually a poor choice, given that the interest rate on credit cards is often several times the rate that would be paid on a line of credit or bank loan. Many owners seek a bank loan in the name of their business, however banks will usually insist on a personal guarantee by the business owner. In the United States, the Small Business Administration (SBA) runs several loan programs that may help a small business secure loans. In these programs, the SBA guarantees a portion of the loan to the issuing bank and thus relieves the bank of some of the risk of extending the loan to a small business. " http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_business
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the planning, execution and control of the value chain of the organisation
CRM is a difficult Process to place. In an organisation that does ongoing business with existing customers (e.g. security patrols), the Sales people are Account Managers who will maintain the relationship. In a business that only trades once with a customer, (e.g. alarm installation), the support (ie Service) staff will maintain the relationship and the Sales people are Sales Executives who are disinterested once the transaction is closed.
We have placed it in Sales but that is open to debate.
or is this just part of Supply?
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Service Management is the definition, support and delivery of services to customers, users and/or staff.
There is a matrix that can be drawn, of the systems and technology that the business manages on one axis mapped against the services that the business delivers on the perpendicular axis. Service Management is about turning staff around 90° so they look at the services they provide instead of looking at their systems and technology.
That is to say, service management is about getting people to think first about what matters to the user of the service and only then derive from that what is required of the technology and systems that provide the service.
Once we understand what services we provide and what the users need from those services, we can plan, spend, operate, measure and improve on that basis. This is a very powerful concept.
Initial implementation  20 minutes to plan who should do it and what they need 1 hour to go over the process with the person 20 minutes to discuss it with staff 
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The books say problem and Incident should heve different owners because the objectives and measurables conflict. If that can be done, good. but in a small business there are often not enough people. Incident management is about restoration of service, Problem management is about stopping the incidents from happening. The Service Manager is interested in both so they should be professional enough to pursue both. Other possibilities are to have the Operations Manager own Problem, since some problems impact Operations, but that would neglect staff problems and others that do not impact ops. The Operations Manager could own Incident since they already own CRM, but once again that would neglect staff incidents. Very many incidents and problems involve computing and the IT people have strong skills, so in some organisations the IT Manager could own Problem or Incident
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generating revenue
(otherwise known as Human Resources*) the recruitment, development, retention, incenting, assessment and remuneration of staff
* Companies that really care about their people call them people
terms of employment, code of conduct, security policy, benefits ....
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generating demand
Volunteers are sought to write all or part of the Marketing discipline. Contact content@corepractice.org
This process is strongly linked with Partners. The partner process manages the highlevel business agreement, the Channel process manages the daytoday execution fo that agreement. the Channel process may recruit potential new channel partners, but the Partner process executes the negotiation of a contract.
Selection, justification, purchase, construction and implementation of systems for the business: machinery, software, vehicles ...
The process of determining business (not just user) requirements, and submission and approval/denial of business case.
Ownership is placed with the Change Owner as Requirements is the entry point to change. You might prefer to have the Governor own it as gatekeeper to expenditure.
Even though not part of Computing discipline, the IT builder would seem to be the most qualified person to conduct the process. Potential for outsourcing this process
These practices are still in early development  a 'sketch".
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The process of buying technology (hardware, software...)
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The process of building a solution inhouse, as compared to acquisition. At some level, customisation of an acquired solution becomes development, and a development is often built upon acquired components, so they are not always mutually exclusive Even though not part of Computing discipline, the IT Manager would seem to be the most qualified person to own the process. One imagines almost all developed solutions (as compared to acquired) will be software. Extreme potential for outsourcing this process: only limited conditiosn under which a small business should attempt inhouse development. NB spreadsheets, Access databases and all other active software should be subject to the Solutions processes: requirements, development, implementation and maintenance.
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Panko [ref 0.11.51] has collected the best available evidence for spreadsheet error rates, based on field audits by organisations such as Coopers and Lybrand, KPMG, and HMCE (the UK's Customs and Excise department). Of 54 spreadsheets audited between 1997 and 2000, no fewer than 49 were found to contain significant errors  a defect rate of 91 per cent. In a more recent exercise, every single one of 30 project financing spreadsheets scrutinised had at least one mistake.
See also refs 0.11.52, 0.11.54
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The process of planning and executing the rollout of a solution.
it is owned by the Operations Manager because of the production impact.
There is a specialist Release process under computing for largescale software riollouts. It operates as a subset of this process.
Potential for outsourcing this process
The process of the ongoing regular maintenance and changes to fix problems, upgrade or enhance.
the cost of maintenance must be part of the business case (i.e. business cases should include TCO) and should be costed into every project.
it is owned by the Operations Manager because of the production impact.
Potential for outsourcing this process
otherwise known as Information Technology or Information and Communications Technology) the planning, execution and control of computerbased systems, usually complex enough to have a separate Discipline from Operations
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In theory, Security is not in the Computing Discipline, because building security, desk security and personal safety are all other Security issues. In practice, such a large part of security is ITrelated these days, including building security and monitoring, that Computing is a good place to have it.
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Release is considered part of the #;Improving maturity level of Change process, and could be collapsed into Change if the Group prefers, which is why all the activities are at maturity 3:Improving.<br \>
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Also known as Identity and Access Management
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Also known as Level 2 support
The process of collecting, refining, presenting and storing information for the business. Some of this actiivity is not ITrelated but in the modern world so much of it is that Computing seems the best place for this and the IT Manager the best owner.
These practices are still in early development  a "sketch".
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Big projects: R&D, building construction, office relocation ...
A Role describes a job that someone needs to perform. A Role can own some Processes and perform some Practices. A person can have multiple roles, but they perform only one role at any one time, and only one person owns a role. The Practices they perform are not necessarily part of Processes they own.
Ownership is about being the manager or overseer of that process and taking ultimate responsibility and accountability for how it is performed.
Performing a Practice is about the actual doing, while being answerable to the owner of the Process.
The Roles defined for Core Practice for Small Business have been extracted from a number of sources to give the simplest set of Roles we can find.
See the Guidance associated with each Role for more information about them and the Processes they own.
We group the roles into Primary Roles, and Secondary Roles. Primary Roles will be separate people in an organisation big enough, and only get several roles assigned to the one person in smaller organisations. Secondary Roles are "hats" to be worn by people, either people filling the Primary Roles or others.
There is an obvious default Primary Role for each of the Secondary Roles, but we split them out. It would be a large business where there were separate people for each of these Secondary Roles  each will generally be assigned to one of the Primary Roles.
We will indicate where these might be best assigned, but circumstances will vary. So these additional "hats"to be worn are additional roles to give you the flexibility to put them somewhere else.
For example, in most businesses the Security "hat" will be given to the IT Manager, but in others Security may be less ITcentric (e.g. an outdoors company with expensive plant) or more critical (e.g. one handling money or personal information) so the hat fits better somewhere else. Or the boss may decide the Governor role has quite enough to do and choose to delegate roles such as Quality and Legal.
Group: Small Business
OID: 1.3.0
There is no one source of Best Practice for assigning roles and ownership across the business. There is some good material around the IT roles in ITIL (see 0.11.36)
Need some references here: suggestions please
Secondary Roles are "hats" to be worn by people, either people filling the Primary Roles or others.
There is an obvious default Primary Role for each of the Secondary Roles, but we split them out. It would be a large business where there were separate people for each of these Secondary Roles  each will generally be assigned to one of the Primary Roles.
We will indicate where these might be best assigned, but circumstances will vary. So these additional "hats"to be worn are additional roles to give you the flexibility to put them somewhere else.
performs  practice  Communicate policy on the use of computers 
performs  practice  Determine technological direction 
performs  practice  Do prototypes and pilots for all developments over $n 
performs  practice  Encourage staff behaviours in use and protection of IT 
performs  practice  Have a Development process 
performs  practice  Have a process to identify changes that need release 
performs  practice  Have a provisioning process 
performs  practice  Have a task schedule 
performs  practice  Manage access 
performs  practice  Manage confidentiality, data policy 
performs  practice  Manage identity 
performs  practice  Measure security violations 
performs  practice  Project manage all developments 
performs  practice  Projectmanage releases 
owns  process  Computing Architecture 
owns  process  Computing Assessment 
owns  process  Computing Governance 
owns  process  Computing Plan 
owns  process  Development 
owns  process  Information 
owns  process  IT Production Support 
owns  process  Provisioning 
owns  role  IT Manager 
performs  practice  Keep an operations log 
performs  practice  Maintain service views 
performs  practice  Make a daily backup of production data 
performs  practice  Manage desktops 
performs  practice  Manage groupware 
performs  practice  Manage networks 
performs  practice  Manage servers 
performs  practice  Measure server and network availability manually 
performs  practice  Measure Availability at desktop 
performs  practice  Measure system performance 
performs  practice  Monitor capacity 
performs  practice  Monitor service availability 
performs  practice  Provision users 
owns  process  IT Production 
performs  practice  Create alternative systems for critical processes 
performs  practice  Create DR plan and systems 
performs  practice  Measure missed tasks 
performs  practice  Monitor operator's log accuracy 
owns  process  Distribution 
owns  process  Implementation 
owns  process  Maintenance 
owns  process  Operations plan 
owns  process  Production 
owns  process  Release 
owns  process  Stock control 
owns  process  Supply 
performs  practice  Keep records for employee entitlements, eg holidays 
performs  practice  keep records of employee performance and review 
performs  practice  Keep records of employee training and development 
performs  practice  Measure provisioning accuracy 
performs  practice  Measure time to provision new users 
owns  process  Appraisal 
owns  process  Deployment 
owns  process  Development 
owns  process  Incentive 
owns  process  People plan 
owns  process  Recruitment 
owns  process  Safety and health 
owns  process  Termination 
owns  process  Project execution 
owns  process  Project planning 
owns  process  Resources 
owns  process  Campaign 
owns  process  Customer Relationship 
owns  process  Export 
owns  process  Forecasting 
owns  process  Lead generation 
owns  process  Lead tracking 
owns  process  Retail 
owns  process  Sales Strategy 
performs  practice  integrate asset process with change process 
performs  practice  store assets in Service Desk tool 
owns  process  Assets 
performs  practice  Get Availability expertise (training or consultants) 
performs  practice  Have an Availability plan 
performs  practice  Review plan annually 
owns  process  Availability 
performs  practice  Forecast capacity 
performs  practice  Have a Capacity plan 
performs  practice  Map capacity to service 
performs  practice  Review plan annually 
owns  process  Capacity 
performs  practice  Control all acquisitions through Change process 
performs  practice  Control all development through Change process 
performs  practice  Control change workflow 
performs  practice  Educate about Change process 
performs  practice  Establish a CAB: approve changes before they can happen 
performs  practice  Extend Change to manage nonIT assets 
performs  practice  Measure Changes not complying with process 
performs  practice  Measure development process compliance 
performs  practice  Measure errors found in testing 
performs  practice  Measure process compliance 
performs  practice  Measure successful user acceptance testing 
performs  practice  Projectmanage all acquisitions 
performs  practice  Track changes before they happen 
performs  practice  Track changes manually before or after the fact 
owns  process  Change 
performs  practice  Get Continuity expertise, training and/or skills 
performs  practice  Have a Continuity plan driven off business plan 
performs  practice  Review plan annually 
performs  practice  Test DR plan and systems 
performs  practice  Create a CoPr plan 
performs  practice  Determine your review interval for each Discipline 
performs  practice  Download CoPr 
performs  practice  Read the IoCP newsletter 
performs  practice  Register for corepractice.org 
performs  practice  Review CoPr updates 
performs  practice  Review CoPr with staff and other stakeholders 
performs  practice  Review submissions 
performs  practice  Update CoPr plan 
performs  practice  Use the corepractice.org forums 
owns  process  CoPr 
performs  practice  Measure number of incidents 
owns  process  Service Desk and Incident 
owns  process  Legal 
owns  process  Channels 
owns  process  Demand 
owns  process  Market analysis 
owns  process  Market strategy 
performs  practice  Fix problems 
performs  practice  Have a Problem process 
performs  practice  have an alligatorkiller 
performs  practice  Track problems to resolution 
owns  process  Problem 
owns  process  Quality assurance 
owns  process  Quality management 
performs  practice  Educate on policy, awareness 
performs  practice  Get an annual audit of security 
performs  practice  Have a security architecture 
performs  practice  Have a security policy 
performs  practice  Measure security policy violations 
owns  process  Security 
A technique defines a Practice that is used in a number of places.
The full list of CoPr references is in the Bibliography or at http://www.corepractice.org/#1086.
References are shown in the text by their numeric indicator ("OID") which will be 0.11.something. There will be a link to the full text of the reference, and the same information is shown when the mouse hovers over the reference (in browsers that support that). This is the full list of references for Core Practice  not all are used in this book.
OID  Reference 

0.11.1  The performance and competitive advantage of small firms: a management perspective, Jennings and Beaver, International Small Business Journal 15(2), 1997 
0.11.2  Supporting IS Management within SMEs: a process based Approach, Ravarini, Tagliavini, Faverio, Cattenio University, date unknown. www.academicconferences.org/ ecite/ecite2005/2proceedingsecite2001.htm 
0.11.3  Managing in Turbulent Times, Drucker, Harper & Row, 1980 
0.11.4  The New Realities, Drucker, Harper & Row 1989. 
0.11.5  The Post Capitalist Society, Drucker, Harper Business 1994 
0.11.6  Future Shock, Toffler. Bantam Books, 1970 
0.11.7  The Third Wave, Toffler, Morrow 1980 
0.11.8  Powershift, Toffler, Bantam Books 1990 
0.11.9  Framework for Enterprise Aerchitecture: Enterpise Physics 101, Zachman, seminar (e.g Wellington, New Zealand 2005) 
0.11.10  Enterprise Architecture: The Issue of the Century, Zachman, Database Programming and Design, Miller Freeman, 1997 
0.11.11  Balanced scorecard implementation in SMEs: reflection in literature and practice, Andersen, Cobbold and Lawrie, 2GC Ltd, SMESME Conference, Copenhagen, May 2001 
0.11.12  IT Infrastructure Library practices in small IT units, Office of Government Commerce, The Stationery Office 1998 
0.11.13  Planning and Growth Characteristics of Small Business OwnerManagers, Mazzarol, Centre for Entrepreneurial Management and Innovation (CEMI), University of Western Australia 
0.11.14  Sustainable Development Of Construction Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs): IT Impediments Focus, Stewart, Miller, Mohamed and Packham, School of Engineering, Griffith University, Australia, 
0.11.15  Benefits resulting from the combined use of ISO/IEC 15504 with the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), Barafort, Di Renzo, Merlan, Centre for IT Innovation, Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor 
0.11.16  Tailoring the CMM for small businesses, small organizations, and small projects, Johnson, Brodman, LOGOS International Inc, Software Process Newsletter, No.8, Winter 1997, IEEE Computer Society Technical Council on Software Engineering 
0.11.17  COBIT Quickstart, IT Governance Institute, 2003, ISBN 1893209598 
0.11.18  An Introductory Overview of ITIL, Rudd, itSMF, 2004 
0.11.19  Capability Maturity Model® Integration (SM) (CMMI), Version 1.1, CMMI Product Team, Carnegie Mellon University, 2002 
0.11.20  MOF Executive Overview version 3.0, Microsoft Corporation, Microsoft, 2005. http://www.microsoft.com/technet/itsolutions/cits/mo/mof/default.mspx 
0.11.21  The IT Service Capability Maturity Model, Niessinka, Clerca, Tijdinka, and van Vlietb, CIBIT,2005 http://www.itservicecmm.org/ 
0.11.22  The Capability Maturity Model: Guidelines for Improving the Software Process, Paulk, Weber, Curtis, and Chrissis, SEI Series in Software Engineering, AddisonWesley, 1995. 
0.11.23  CMMI Overview, Carnegie Mellon SEI, 2005 
0.11.24  ISO/IEC Software process Assessment – part 2: A model for process management, ISO 
0.11.25  OGC Portfolio Programme and Project Management Maturity Model P3M3, OGC, 2003 
0.11.26  OGC IS Management SelfAssessment Questionnaire  IT Service Management: Service Delivery, OGC, 2001 
0.11.27  ITIL Process Maturity SelfAssessment & Action Plan, Pink Elephant, 2002 
0.11.28  Process assessment for use in very small enterprises: the NOEMI assessment methodology, Di Renzo, Feltus, Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, December 2003 http://www.citi.tudor.lu/SI/Presentation.nsf/0/869af862a1bae596c1256e8d003711f4/$FILE/ATTK0FT0 
0.11.29  Business Success: Factors leading to surviving and closing successfully, Headd, Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration, November 2000 
0.11.30  Strategic Decision Making in Small Innovative Firms  the Perceived Importance of Other Voices, Mazzarol and Reboud, Centre for Entrepreneurial Management and Innovation (CEMI), University of Western Australia 
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